General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Cyt-c-p
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Cytochrome c proximal
Annotation Symbol
CG17903
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0284248
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
DC4, Cyt c, Cyt-c2, Cytc, l(2)k13905
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:16,719,932..16,722,644 [+]
Recombination map
2-52
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the cytochrome c family. (P84029)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CYTOCHROME C -
Cytochrome c is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in electron transfer as part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Cytochrome c is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and functions as a single electron carrier from ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex to Cytochrome c oxidase. (Adapted from PMID:21296189).
OTHER OXIDOREDUCTASES -
The Other oxidoreductases, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
(UniProt, P84029)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cyt-c1 and Cyt-c2: Cytochrome c
Apparently the structural genes for two cytochrome-c type enzymes, which differ from each other in 32/107 amino-acid residues. Cyt-c1 (sequence D3) expressed at constant, but relatively low, level throughout development; Cyt-c2 (sequence D4) expressed at varying, but relatively high, levels throughout development. Amino acid sequence also given in Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Proteins (Fasman, ed.) CRC Press, Cleveland, Vol. 3, pp. 282-83.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Cyt-c-p or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Cyt-c-p for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080889
681
108
FBtr0344849
634
108
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080446
11.7
108
10.18
FBpp0311164
11.7
108
10.18
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

108 aa isoforms: Cyt-c-p-PA, Cyt-c-p-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
(UniProt, P84029)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Cyt-c-p using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (7 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002327, InterPro:IPR009056
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003809
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003809
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Cyt-c-p-XR expression fluctuates through development, with highest levels in first instar larvae and adult. Among adult body parts examined, Cyt-c-p-XR expression is highest in the thorax.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Cyt-c-p protein levels were determined by a biochemical assay. Protein levels rise through the larval stages with a small peak at pupation. A six-fold increase is seen at adult emergence.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Cyt-c-p in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Cyt-c-p
Allele of Cyt-c-p
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Cyt-c-p
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Summary of Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
9 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190J13 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150G3I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0K4L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0KAN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0UQY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-52
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:16,719,932..16,722,644 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36A10-36A12
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338); Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}grpEP921&P{lacW}l(2)k13905k13905 and P{lacW}gluk08819
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36A10-36A11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (188)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: Cyt-c2 CG17903
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Cyt-c-p l(2)k13905
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Cyt-c-p is neither necessary nor sufficient for caspase activation and apoptosis in Drosophila cells.
      Mutating the invariant proline-30 of Cyt-c-p to alanine destabilizes the haem crevice more than the overall conformation.
      The Cyt-c-p protein was detected as a functional cytochrome molecule and the amino acid sequence determined.
      Cyt-c-p encodes a functional cytochrome c protein. Cyt-c-p is expressed at varying relatively high levels throughout development and the predicted polypeptide sequence differs from Cyt-c-d at 32 amino acid residues. Cyt-c-d and Cyt-c-p are located 3.5kb apart and have arisen from an ancient duplication event.
      A cDNA clone for the thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene from M.sexta has been used to isolate the corresponding major thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene from D.melanogaster. Hybridisation studies reveal that Cyt-c-p is expressed at constant high levels. The genomic clone has been sequenced and its amino acid sequence derived. Cyt-c-d shares limited nucleotide homology with Cyt-c-p.
      Apparently the structural gene for one of two cytochrome-c type enzymes, which differ from each other in 32/107 amino-acid residues. First isolated from a Charon-4 library using mouse cytochrome-c gene sequence as a probe. Cyt-c-d (sequence D3) expressed at constant, but relatively low, level throughout development; Cyt-c-p (sequence D4) expressed at varying, but relatively high, levels throughout development. Amino acid sequence also given in Fasman (1977).
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 38 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0000409
      • FBgn0021867
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (116)